Slag Sand - An Alternate for Natural River Sand
Processed Slag (PS) Sand is an eco friendly alternate to river sand that can be used 100% individually or in combination with river sand or M Sand.
Guidelines for Tiles Laying

As consumers we would have bought the best of the Vitrified Tiles available in the market. However it is finally the workmanship of laying the Tiles that gives us the feel and its aesthetics. we often here of displacements, non alignment and other issues. The workman can make or break the show !!

Thankfully there are guidelines to Lay tiles and well defined by ISO

For Flooring


  • The  screed  bed  for  laying  Vitrified  Porcelain  Tiles  shall  be  of  cement  and  sand mortar as indicated.
  • Bedding over which the tiles shall be laid shall not be less than 10mm at any place



  • Base concrete or RCC slab shall be cleaned and wetted.
  • The bedding shall then be laid  evenly  over  the  surface,  tamped  and  corrected to  desired  levels  and  allowed  to harden  enough  to  offer  a rigid  cushion  to  tiles. 
  • Before  laying  the  tiles,  tiles  shall  be washed  and  then  applied  fine  cement  slurry  on  the  back  of  the  tile  to  ensure  full  and proper  bedding. 
  • Tiles  shall  then  be  placed  on  bedding, each  tile  being  gently  tapped with  rubber  hammer  in  its  position  till  it  is  properly  bedded and  in  level  and  line  with adjoining tiles.
  • Use of spacers is recommended for uniformity in joints and better finish.
  • Remove the residual cement or jointing material immediately by a wet sponge.
  • After 24 hours when the tiles are properly set and cured, fill the joint gaps with joint filler as per recommendation  of  manufacturer. 
  • The  joint  gap  shall be  filled  by  spreading  joint  filler paste  in  the  spaces  between  the  tiles  with  the  help of  rubber  trowel. 
  • Clean  the  tiles surface immediately with the help of wet sponge.
  • Vitrified  Porcelain  Tiles  can  be  laid  in  flooring  over  Base  concrete  or  RCC  slab directly  by  using  suitable  chemical  adhesive  as  per  manufacturer’s  instructions  if  so indicated.

 Source: ISO 13006

Vitrified Tiles specifications

Vitrified are very popuar substitutes for Marbles, Granites and other materials. They are popular due to their strenght, low water porosity and a cost effectiveness.

So what constitutes the specifications for calling a Tile a Vitrified Tile.. ISO (under ISO 13006) provides guidelines that define the characterestic of Vitrified Tiles

1. For Polished Vitrified Tiles.

  • Tiles shall be hard, dense, impervious and frost resistant.
  • Water absorption of tiles shall be less than 0.5% and flexural strength (Modulus of Rupture) shall be more than 35
  • Vitrified polished porcelain floor tiles shall be provided of sizes, colour, shades, texture and designs as indicated and if size not indicated it shall be 600mm x 600 mm/ 605 x 605 mm.
  • The thickness shall be as specified by the manufacturer but not less than 8mm.

2. For Unpolished Vitrified Tiles.

Heavy duty vitrified tiles shall be acid and alkali resistant, weather proof, anti skid and abrasion resistant as per International

  • Water absorption<2%
  • Flexural Strength>35 N/Sqmm
  • Moh's Hardness>6
  • Abrasion resistance<204mm.
  • Heavy duty vitrified tiles shall be of sizes, colour, texture and designs as indicated but size if not indicated it shall be of 300mm x 300 mm. The thickness shall be as specified by the manufacturer

Source: ISO Specification 13006

How to Avoid Duplicate Plywood boards and buy Authentic plywood boards

Many consumers purchase plywood based on the recommendations of carpenters, workers, contractors or suppliers. They rarely get to understand and analyze the quality aspect of the plywood. Often they compromise on quality for cheap products without realising the long term impact of purchasing sub standard materials.

Is it not surprising that consumers complain of deterioration of the plywood bought after just a few years. The common complaints heard are:

  1. Bending in the material
  2. Material has been infected with Fungus / Termites.
  3. Material has become powdered
  4. Material has developed cracks

So how did the above happen?

Plywood industry is very prone to

  1. Duplicate items
  2. Sub standard raw material used to manufacture plywood.


Duplicate Items:

Be aware that many items that are sold under popular brands are duplicates. Fake Stickers or Stamps are put on the material to make it look genuine

Sub standard raw material used to manufacture plywood:

It is important to understand that the quality, strength and durability of Plywood is linked to:

  1. Wood used. Does the wood used have natural properties that are termites or fungus proof? So always ask which wood or set of wood is used to manufacture.
  2. Glue that is used to bind the layers in a sheet.
  3. Machinery used.

To short cut cost, quality is often compromised by some manufacturers. Plain jungle wood is used that do not withstand termites or fungus or water moisture.

Bad glue materials are used for binding layers in a sheet, thus resulting in cracks, bend, etc.


How to avoid duplicates or Sub standard materials ?

It is important to understand what grade of material is being purchased. Generally plywoods fall under Commercial (Moisture Resistant), BWR (Boiling water Resistant) and BWP (Boiling water proof) also known as Marine grades.

Indian Standard Specifications CODE for
1) Moisture Resistant(MR) Grade Plywood is IS:303 of 1989
2) Boiling Water Resistant(BWR) Grade Plywood is IS:303 of 1989
3) Boiling Water Proof(BWP) Grade Plywood is IS:710 of 2010


Look out for the ISI Mark on the material (plywood Sheet).

BIS Mark or CM/L Number:

Materials should have CM/L number which indicates the authenticity of the material using the ISI mark.

Consumers can download the BIS Care app from Google Playstore. They can track the history, manunfacturing unit of the material using the app and by providing the CM/L number mentioned on each sheet of plywood.

THe app can be downloaded from:


  1. Do not fall prey to unsolicited advice
  2. Always do your own research and study of the material
  3. Look for ISI mark on the material
  4. Look out for CM/L number on the mateial
  5. Understand the source and usage of raw materials used.
Difference between OPC 43 and OPC 53 Grade Cement

The grade is the index of strength measured as the compressive strength measured in laboratory

33 Grade cement will have compressive strength = 33 MPa (Mega Pascals) after 28 days

43 grade = 43 MPa (Mega Pascals) after 28 days

53 grade = 53 MPa (Mega Pascals) after 28 days


Hand Tucher Web Directory

BIS Code specifications for Manufactured Sand (M Sand)

Bureau of Indian Standards ( BIS ) Guidelines IS: 383-1970 for selection and testing of Coarse and Fine aggregates available.
Generally, Sand is classified as Zone I, Zone II, Zone III and Zone IV (i.e. Coarser to Finer). There is
sieve designation for each zone. Gradation is made in accord with the usage of the sand. There are
testing sieves, consists of 4.75mm, 2.36mm, 1.183mm, 600microns, 300 microns, 150 microns and a

Typical Sieve analysis: Comparison of River & Manufactured Sand
IS Sieve % of passing(River
% of passing (Manufactured
Sand )
Zone II (As per
4.75 MM 100 100 90-100
2.36 MM 99.7 90.7 75-100
1.18 MM 89 66.2 55-90
600 micron 60.9 39.8 35-59
300 micron 17.7 25.5 8-30
150 micron 3.1 9.9 0-20
75 micron Max 3 Max 15 Max 15
  Zone II Zone II  

Zone IIZone IINote: The gradation of manufactured sand can be controlled at crushing

M sand in Bangalore

Natural or River sand are weathered and worn out particles of rocks and are of various grades or sizes
depending upon the amount of wearing. Now-a-days good sand is not readily available, it is
transported from a long distance. Those resources are also exhausting very rapidly. So it is a need of
the time to find some substitute to natural river sand.

The artificial sand produced by proper machines can be a better substitute to river sand. The sand
must be of proper gradation (it should have particles from 150 microns to 4.75 mm in proper

When fine particles are in proper proportion, the sand will have fewer voids. The cement quantity
required will be less. Such sand will be more economical. Demand for manufactured fine aggregates
for making concrete is increasing day by day as river sand cannot meet the rising demand of
construction sector. Natural river sand takes millions of years to form and is not repleneshible.
Because of its limited supply, the cost of Natural River sand has sky rocketed and its consistent supply
cannot be guaranteed. Under this circumstances use of manufactured sand becomes inevitable.
River sand in many parts of the country is not graded properly and has excessive silt and organic
impurities and these can be detrimental to durability of steel in concrete whereas manufactured sand
has no silt or organic impurities

Issues with River Sand

1. The Civil engineers, Architects, Builders, and Contractors agree that the river sand, which is
available today, is deficient in many respect. It does content very high silt fine particles (as in
case of Filter sand).
2. Presence of other impurities such as coal, bones, shells, mica and silt etc makes it inferior for
the use in cement concrete. The decay of these materials, due to weathering effect, shortens
the life of the concrete.
3. Now-a-days, the Government have put ban on lifting sand from River bed.
4. Transportation of sand damages the roads.
5. Removing sand from river bed impact the environment, as water table goes deeper &
ultimately dry.

General Requirements of Manufactured Sand (M Sand)

1. All the sand particles should have higher crushing strength.
2. The surface texture of the particles should be smooth.
3. The edges of the particles should be grounded.
4. The ratio of fines below 600 microns in sand should not be less than 30%.
5. There should not be any organic impurities
6. Silt in sand should not be more than 2%, for crushed sand.
7. In manufactured sand the permissible limit of fines below 75 microns shall not exceed 15%.


To check M sand price in Bangalore. visit